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Conditions for basidiospore production in the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum separium in axenic culture
1984 - IRG/WP 1232
Attempts to control and optimize the production of hymenial structures and basidiospore production in Gloeophyllum sepiarium in axenic culture resulted in the proposal of the following conditions as being suitable. The dikaryotic mycelia originally isolated from basidiocarps could consistently be induced to produce hymenial structures and pure basidiospore collects if illuminated by near ultraviolet light with emission maximum at 355 nm ("black light") at a temperature of 15°C on a chemically defined medium, where the concentration of the carbon and the nitrogen sources were shown to be of critical significance. The necessary conditions for basidiospore production in lignicolous fungi in general are is briefly discussed.
J Bjurman


A technique for fructification and basidiospore production by Serpula lacrymans (Schum. ex fr.) SF Gray in artificial culture
1986 - IRG/WP 2255
A method for fructification and basidiospore production by Serpula lacrymans is outlined. A wheat flour/malt extract medium or an oat grain medium, enriched with alanine, tri-potassium phosphate and thiamine supported good fructification of the fungus at a temperature of 12°C. The influence on fructification of temperature, light and inoculum is discussed. To date, 22 stains from a total of 38 tested, fructify in culture.
S Cymorek, B M Hegarty


Basisiospore production by Lentinus lepideus in vitro
1987 - IRG/WP 2276
Evaluation of fungicides active against the lower fungi by spore based bioassays is very common. Possibilities of using similar assays to evaluate preservatives against brown rot and white rot fungi, especially for use in above ground constructions, are limited by the lack of methods for production of basidiospores. Tested media containing glucose 10-30 g/l and ammonium tartrate concentrations 2-20 g/l supported fairly good spore production. Media buffered with the organic buffer 2 (N-morpholino) ethane sulfonate (MES) with phosphate concentrations of 12.5-50 mM supported good spore production.
J Bjurman


The effect of storage and subculturing on in vitro fruit body formation and spore production in Gloeophyllum sepiarium and Oligoporus placentus
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20232
Spores are widely assumed to be the main mode of infection of wood in conditions conducive to decay above ground. In order to supply spores on demand as an experimental material, fruiting body and basidiospore production in vitro by Gloeophyllum sepiarium and Oligoporus placentus have been examined. The optimum medium, time to spore production, and duration of fruiting as well as fruiting body shape varied among strains of both species. Even when the same strain was used as the inoculum source, there were differences in duration of fruiting and time to spore production in different experimental sets. This suggests that the method of mycelium storage and repeated subculturing could affect fungal capacity for fruiting and basidiospore production. Among the tested methods of mycelium storage, mycelia stored on wood blocks showed the most stable response in both fruiting and spore production.
S Choi, J N R Ruddick, P I Morris


The dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. Examples of attack and remedial treatment
1988 - IRG/WP 1347
The film deals with several aspects of dry rot attack and eradication in buildings. The detailed biology and morphological charasteristics of the fungus are portrayed. The various forms of mycelial growth, the role of the strands in the nourishment and spread of the fungus, as well as the many types of fruitbody formation are outlined. Environmental and nutritional requirements of the fungus as well as the potential infection danger posed by the basidiospores are discussed. The second part of the film, outlining the main reasons for dry-rot attack and spread in building together with the significant damage caused, shows the full extent of the problem to expert and lay-person alike. The necessity of correct survey and inspection of decayed areas to determine the full range of attack is stressed. Examples of various remedial treatments and the present technological state of eradication techniques, e.g. pressure injection, in Germany are discussed.
G Buchwald, B M Hegarty, W Metzner, R Pospischil, H Siegmund, P Grabow


Physical properties of ß-1,4-Xylanase produced by Postia (=Poria) placenta: Implications for the control of brown rot
1987 - IRG/WP 1318
The degradation of hemicelluloses is an early event in wood decay by brown-rot fungi. An understanding of the physical properties of hemicellulases may suggest target mechanisms for the development of new control agents. Endo-b-1,4-xylanase was partially purified by column chromatography from wood decayed by Postia (= Poria) placenta. The enzyme was extremely resistant to denaturing conditions; no loss of activity was detected after 2 h in 9 M urea or 6 M guanidine-HCl. Boiling the enzyme for 5 min in 2.5% SDS + 0.5% b-mercaptoethanol reduced its activity by 65%, as measured by the production of reducing sugars. The activity of a-D-galactosidase, another enzyme detected in large quantities in the decayed wood, was reduced by 98% under these conditions. Optimum pH and temperature ranges were pH 2-6 and 50-60°C, respectively. The enzyme appears to be a glycoprotein containing 50-60% carbohydrate (w/w); the carbohydrate moiety may protect the enzyme from adverse environmental conditions. The control of brown rot by in situ inactivation of xylanase may not be feasible because of the enzyme's extreme stability.
J A Micales, F Green III, C A Clausen, T L Highley


Successive collections of Basidiospores from wood decay fungi (in vitro) show variation in germination levels on common media
1978 - IRG/WP 191
In the course of various preliminary experiments in which spore germination levels of 6 decay fungi on malt and water agar were recorded as controls, it was noted that one could not reliably obtain an expected level of spore germination for any particular fungus. Inconsistent 'control' spore germination levels of a fungus greatly complicates large scale experiments in which comparisons of data based on germination levels are attempted upon replication of the study over time. This study was done to determine if, in fact, spores collected at different times from specific hymenial areas of wood decay fungi sporulating in vitro differed significantly in germination level on common media under standardized conditions.
E L Schmidt, D W French


Biological control with Trichoderma harzianum in relation to the formation for spores the production of soluble metabolites
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10073
The amount of spores produced by three strains of Trichoderma harzianum on the aerial mycelium of agar cultures and in shake cultures, respectively, correlated with the inhibition zones exerted against Phanerochaete chrysosporium in an agar diffusion test. The amount of soluble antifungal metabolites as well as the protein content also correlated with the inhibition zones and the amount of spores produced. The antifungal metabolites were identified to be trichorzianines. They were the only compounds with antifungal activity. It is concluded that the trichorzianines are responsible for the biocontrol effect by soluble metabolites and that they are produced during conidiogenesis.
J Bürgel, E Horvath, J Haschka, K Messner


Acoustic communication between Microcerotermes crassus Snyder
1982 - IRG/WP 1158
An unusual acoustic communication within a nest of Microcerotermes crassus SNYDER is reported. The signals produced by the termites are described and possible reasons for this behavior are considered.
U Kny


Production of treated wood in Brazil in 1982 and 1983
1985 - IRG/WP 3327
The data of Brazilian production of treated sleepers, poles, crossarms, fence posts and other commodities are given for the years of 1982 and 1983. This report updates information given to the Group in Document No: IRG/WP/3321 Wood Preservation in Brazil, STU information no 445
M S Cavalcante


The role of communication in the field of environment protection: A case study "Wood Protection"
1990 - IRG/WP 3574
L Wöss


Wood preservation in East European countries
1989 - IRG/WP 3527
The paper discusses the main problems of wood preservation in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German DR, Hungary, Poland, Rumania and the USSR. The main types of wood preservatives produced have been presented, as well as the state of standarization to test their properties. There have been considered methods of wood treatment in use and application range of treated wood.
J Wazny


Japanese wood preserving industry
1990 - IRG/WP 3596
Although a great amount of wood is in use in Japan, a little attention has been paid to the significance and importance of wood preservation. The fact reflects that only less than 0.5% of the total wood consumption is treated with wood preservatives today in the country. Over the 20 years before 1970, the annual volume of preservative treated (pressure treatment) wood was relatively at a stable level of approximately 500,000 m³. After the prominent peak of 709,000 m³ in 1968, 500,000 to 600,000 m³ of wood had been annually treated until 1980. In the 1980's the pace of production of preservative-treated wood gradually declined, down to 400,000 m³ in 1988. As for commodities treated with wood preservatives, poles and sleepers have been remarkably decreasing, and wood foundation sills which newly appeared on the market in the late 1960's became a major item. It is expected that new treated commodities will be accepted among Japanese people to stimulate the activity of wood preserving industry in Japan.
K Tsunoda


The influence of crystalline and amorphous cellulose on extracellular hydrogen peroxide production by brown-rot fungi
1991 - IRG/WP 1482
The production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been suggested to play a key role in the degradation of wood by wood-rotting fungi. The production of extracellular hydrogen peroxide was studied by a quantitative method which detects the oxidation of the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) by H2O2 and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in liquid culture medium. The carbon sources used were crystalline and amorphous cellulose. Two brown-rotters, Serpula lacrymans and Poria placenta, were able to produce clearly detectable amounts of extracellular hydrogen peroxide in liquid medium which contained crystalline cellulose as carbon source. No detectable H2O2 was produced in conditions where amorphous medium was used as carbon source. This result suggests that the conformational structure of the substrate may induce H2O2 production by brown-rot fungi.
A-C Ritschkoff, L Viikari


Laboratory tests on natural resistance to Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) attack of native hardwoods for crossarms production
1985 - IRG/WP 1266
Eletropaulo (Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S/A) and IPT (Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo S/A) are carrying on a study to evaluate wood species for crossarms in replacement of Aspidosperma polyneuron - Apocynaceae (Peroba-rosa) traditionally used for this purpose. Nineteen Amazon wood species were elected, with physical and mechanical properties equal or better than those presented by Peroba-rosa. Biological tests with these woods and physical tests of crossarms were carried out. Here is presented the results of the resistance test to Cryptotermes brevis attack.
M D Canedo, A T De Lelis


Inventory of the use of preservative-treated wood and wood preservatives in Sweden 1900-1997
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50137
The objective of this study was to present an overview of the use of wood preservatives and their active ingredients and industrially preservative-treated wood in Sweden since the beginning of the 20th century. The data presented in the report could for example be used as a basis for different waste management scenarios for preservative-treated wood. Before 1960 railway sleepers and utility poles were the most important preservative-treated commodities used in Sweden. Since 1960 sawn timber and other commodities have dominated the market. The total production of preservative- treated wood during the last ten years has been between 400 000 and 600 000 m3 per year. During this period about 60% of the production has been for the Swedish domestic market. A relatively small number of preservative types has been used in Sweden. Creosote has been used mainly for sleepers and poles. CCA dominates for sawn timber, but since 1994 preservatives based on other active ingredients than arsenic and chromium - such as ACQ, copper-azole and copper-HDO - have gained market for above ground commodities. Light organic solvent type preservatives (LOSP), with active ingredients such as organotin compounds and, recently, triazoles, were introduced in the 1970s for the treatment of external window joinery. Since 1900 up to 1997, in total, approximately 640 000 tonnes creosote, 14 000 tonnes arsenic and 9 000 tonnes of each of copper and chromium have been used in Sweden for industrial wood preservation for the domestic market only.
J Jermer, K Nilsson


The influence of boric acid on respiratory quotients and methane production of subterranean termites
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10136
The toxicity of boron compounds to subterranean termites (Reticulitermes lucifugus) was studied by analysing changes in the levels of oxygen uptake respiratory quotients and methane production. Termites were fed with filter paper treated at different levels of boric acid, the RQ was evaluated by constant volume manometry and the methane production by gas chromatography. Results are discussed in relation to termite gut symbiontes.
L Nunes, D J Dickinson


Some statistics on the Brazilian Wood Preservation Industry: 1980-81
1982 - IRG/WP 3214
Statistical data on the production of pressure treated wood and on the consumption of wood preservatives are given for the years of 1980 and 1981 in Brazil.
M S Cavalcante, F C Geraldo, A R De Freitas


2nd IRGWP - Questionnaire on the state of pollution control in the field of wood preservation (Introductory letter)
1981 - IRG/WP 3184
H Willeitner


2nd IRGWP - Questionnaire on the state of pollution control in the field of wood preservation
1981 - IRG/WP 3185
H Willeitner


Effects of a chitin synthesis inhibitor on spore germination of the decay fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria tenuis
1986 - IRG/WP 2253
This study sought to determine the effect of a chitin synthesis inhibitor - Polyoxin D, on spore germination and early hyphal development of a brown rot and a white rot fungus in-vitro. Polyoxin D is a competitive, substrate-analogue type of chitin synthtase inhibitor (2). The drawbacks to use of such a compound as a wood preservative tie. cost - $20,000/g, possible leaching or degradation) might be reduced should it be effective in preventing decay initiation by spore germination at very low concentrations.
E L Schmidt


Basidiosporogenesis by brown-rot basidiomycetes in vitro
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10126
Basidiospores of wood-rotting basidiomycetes are a primary sourse of infection causing wood biodeterioration, especially in wood above ground. Most studies evaluating wood preservatives have used mycelia or basidiospores obtained from wild mushrooms. The objective of this study was to demonstrate in vitro methods that promote carpogenesis and basidiosporogenesis by the brown-rot fungi Antrodia carbonisa, Neolentinus lepideus, and Postia placenta. After preincubation in the dark at 27°C for 3 to 11 days, basidiospores were easily prodused in 1 to 4 months by basidiomata exposed to light at 12°C. Adequate light exposure, aeration, and low temperature treatment after preincubation are essential for fruiting body formation of these brown-rot basidiomycetes. The morphology of the basidiomata differed according to the basidiomycetes and the medium used. These results demonstrate that an enormous quantity of basidiosporee can be easily and continuously prodused in 2 to 4 months in vitro.
S C Croan


Bioconversion of wood wastes into gourmet and medicinal mushrooms
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50129
Increased wood wastes, including thinned material from stagnated and overstocked small-diameter forests, are a menace to forest health, to the sustainability of ecosystems, and to community economic viability. The objective of this study is to recycle wood wastes into value-added products, such as gourmet and medicinal mushrooms, by using the white-rot basidiomycetes, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. populinus, P. pulmonarius, and other Pleurotus species. When supplemented with low concentrations of dextrose, these basidiomycetes exhibit an excellent ability to colonize and stimulate fruiting body production on wood wastes. Inoculated wood wastes in air-permeable bags are incubated at 24°C in the dark for 3 to 5 weeks. When exposed to light cycle (10-h day), humidity, and air, they fruit within 4 to 8 weeks. Lyophilization of cultures stimulates filamentous mycelial growth and fruiting is then initiated within 3 to 7 days.
S C Croan


Oxalic acid production of fifteen brown-rot fungi in copper citrate- treated southern yellow pine
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10388
Non-arsenical copper-based wood preservatives have grown in number since the 1980's as a response to environmental concerns posed by arsenicals. Interest in copper tolerant decay fungi has increased accordingly. Oxalic acid (OA) production by brown-rot fungi has been proposed as one mechanism of copper tolerance. Fifteen brown-rot fungi representing the genera Postia, Wolfiporia, Serpula, Gloeophyllum, Laetiporus, Coniophora, Antrodia, and Tyromyces were evaluated for OA production bi- weekly in southern yellow pine (SYP) blocks treated with 1.2% AI copper citrate (CC). Ten fungi were designated copper tolerant and produced 2 to 17 times more OA in the CC-treated blocks than in untreated SYP after 2 weeks. Weight losses ranged from 20 to 55% in CC-treated SYP after 10 wks. Five fungi were copper-sensitive, producing low levels of OA and low weight losses on CC-treated blocks. In this study, early induction of OA appears to closely correlate with copper tolerance. We conclude that brown-rot fungi able to exceed and maintain an OA concentration of >400 mM in this study effectively decayed SYP treated with copper citrate.
F Green III, C A Clausen


First draft of a monographic card for Fomitopsis pinicola (Fr.) Karst
1980 - IRG/WP 196
P W Perrin


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