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Penetration analysis of two common bamboo species - borak and jawa of Bangladesh
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40247
Preservative treatment of two bamboo species, namely borak (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) and jawa (Bambusa salarkhanii Alam) was carried out with chromated copper boron (CCB) preservative by dipping method. The variation in preservative penetration between the two different species was determined. It was found that preservative penetrates into borak quicker than into jawa and easier into air-dried bamboo than into green one.
M O Hannan, A K Lahiry, N M Islam

Accelerated fixation of CCA in borak bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) of Bangladesh
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40193
CCA-C fixation study on impregnated (6% CCA solution), then boiled, oven-dried, normal, air-dried and steamed bamboo slices of air-dried borak bamboo (Bambusa balocca Roxb) of Bangladesh, revealed almost complete fixation in steamed (accelerated fixation) and air-dried (3 weeks, slow fixation) bamboo slices compared to moderate to slow fixation in boiled, oven-dried, normal and 24h air-dried slices.
A K Lahiry

An effective preservative treatment of borak bamboo (Bambusa balcoona Roxb.)
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40070
Adequate penetration and retention of CCA and CCB has been obtained in predried Borak Bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.), aboundantly grown in Bangladesh, with Full Cell Pressure Process. The treated bamboo can be used as building materials, the sufficient treatability ensured its long term best utilization at ground contact and indoors. Which will keep the environmental & socio economical conditions of Bangladesh more viable and normal.
A K Lahiry, S Begum, G N M Ilias, M A Matin Sheikh, M A B Fakir, M I Hossain

Treatability and retainability of two important bamboo species - borak and jawa of Bangladesh
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40248
Preservative treatment has been carried out with five different concentrations, i.e. 3%, 4%, 5%, 6% and 7% and durations, i.e. 2 days, 4 days, 6 days, 8 days and 10 days, at different moisture content, i.e. green and air-dry, and different direction of penetration, i.e. radial and both radial and cross-section for jawa and borak. It has been observed that retention of CCB is always higher in jawa bamboo than borak, which is a clear indication to consider jawa bamboo a more permeable and diffusible bamboo species for dipping process. Adequate retention of preservative for indoor use has been obtained in most of the cases. It has been observed that 6% concentration of preservative with 8 to 10 days duration of dipping provides the best results.
M N Islam, A K Lahiry, M O Hannan

Chapter 9 - Preservation of borak bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-09
Adequate penetration and retention of CCA and CCB have been obtained in pre-dried Borak bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb. See Fig. below), abundantly grown in Bangladesh, with full-cell pressure process. The treated bamboo can be used as building materials; the sufficient treatability ensured its long-term best utilization at ground contact and indoors. This will keep the environmental and socioeconomical conditions of Bangladesh more viable and normal.
A K Lahiry

Studies on the preservative treatment of round bamboos by a new technique
1989 - IRG/WP 3536
Nature has offered a versatile and cheap material bamboo, which is generally found to grow principally in forest areas from sea level to about 400 m wherever suitable combination of ecological factors prevail. This potential renewable natural resource has been since times immemorial, exploited by mankind for a variety of purposes specially in developing countries like Asia, Africa and South America. Bamboo is very well known for its remarkably fast growth. The size and yield of bamboo depends upon several factors like species, soil, climate etc. For example, D. gigantius gives culm 35 m long and 20-25 cm in diameter, Chimoni bambus densifolia culm is hardly 90 cm long and 0.85 cm in diameter. While species like D. strictus are almost solid (specially in dry areas) most of the other species are hollow with wall thickness varying (0.62-0.85 cm). Bamboo possesses adequate strength which compares favourably with some conventional species like sal (Shorea robusta) and teak (Tectona grandis). Bamboos and reeds are said to be the oldest and major building materials specially for rural areas throughout tropical and subtropical regions. It is reported that more people live in houses made of bamboos and reeds than in houses of any other material.
V R Sonti, S Sonti, B Chatterjee

Preservative treatment of two bamboo species Borak (Bambusa balcooa Roxb) and Talla (Bambusa tulda Roxb) by Boucherie method
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40262
Bamboo is widely used as a construction material in rural and urban areas of Bangladesh. It is perishable in nature and highly susceptible to the attack of borer, termites and fungi. As a result, bamboo products do not last long. This short life of bamboo is increasing demand thereby increasing pressure on our homestead and natural reserve of bamboo. For this reason, it is needed to make the bamboo more durable by treating it with more simple and easy method with more effective preserving chemicals. Preservation of two bamboo species namely - borak (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) and talla (Bambusa tulda Roxb.) has been carried out by Boucherie method with CCB (Chromated-Copper-Boron) chemicals. It has been observed that, talla can be easily treated than borak by this method. It has also been observed that total treating time varies with species, amount of pressure applied and the length of the bamboo species. The penetration of preservative throughout the bamboo is more or less similar for both the species.
M N Islam, A S M A Huda, A K Saha, S M Mithue

Preservative treatment of round bamboos by a new technique - Some further studies. Part 1
1990 - IRG/WP 3607
In general, the easy susceptibility of bamboos to wood destroying agencies is a major constraint in its rational utilisation. This is more so in tropical countries like India where wood destroying agencies are quite active. In an earlier publication, it was reported that round bamboo specimens of Bambusa balcooa, having three nodes, could be satisfactorily treated by CCA by a new technique developed at the R & D laboratories of Ascu India. It was also stated that further experimental work was in progress with longer specimens. Details of the results obtained so far are reported in this paper.
V R Sonti, B Chatterjee

Preservative treatment of strips of Bambusa balcooa by soaking process using Borax-Boric acid
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30478
Bamboo strips made from Borak bamboo (Bambusa balcooa) were treated with 10% borax-boric acid aqueous solution by soaking process. The moisture contents of the bamboo strips were 12%, 20% and 30%. The strips were soaked for one, two, three, four and five days. The penetration of the solution was investigated by colour test after soaking and drying. Full penetration was observed after three days of soaking in case of strips containing 12% and 20% M.C and the strips containing 30% M.C showed scattered penetration after five days. The retention of the preservative chemicals through the strips was calculated from the absorbed solution after treatment. Retention of 25.5 kg/m3 and 21.5 Kg/m3 was found through the strips of 12% and 20% M.C respectively after three days. The strips containing 30% M.C attained 20.5 Kg/m3 retention after five days. The strips containing 12% and 20% M.C were used for making composite products for the preparation of chair and table and kept for service test.
K Akhter, M W Sheikh, M M Rahman, T A Chowdhury, M H Chowdhury

Chapter 12 - Treatment Groups of Bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-12
Study on distribution of CCA in three major bamboo species in Bangladesh, full-cell pressure treated at green and dry conditions revealed two treatment groups and some treating principles. Higher adequate treatment for ground and water contact use is only possible by treating problematic bamboo species pre-kiln dried up to half of its FSP and non-problematic species pre-dried up to FSP (20% MC). The non-problematic species can be treated in green conditions for indoor and overhead outdoor uses. Two smallest holes made before treatment in each internode will give split-free bamboo.
A K Lahiry

Chapter 13 - Slow fixation of CCA-treated bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-13
Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) leachability tests on full-cell pressure impregnated (with 2-3% CCA solution) and slow dried (six months air-drying under cover) bamboo block of three major bamboo species of Bangladesh revealed initial insignificant leaching of CCA within first week and no leaching in next week. Use of low concentration of CCA, release of particle form of CCA due to exposure of bamboo blocks by cutting and presence of watersoluble extractives in bamboo might be the causes for initial leaching of CCA.
A K Lahiry

Chapter 14 - Accelerated fixation of CCA-treated bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-14
Chromated copper arsenate type C (CCA-C) fixation study on impregnated (with adequate w/v 6% CCA solution) then boiled, oven-dried, normal, air-dried and steamed bamboo slices of airdried borakbamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) of Bangladesh, revealed almost complete fixation in steamed (accelerated fixation) and air-dried (3 weeks, slow fixation) bamboo slices compared to moderate to low fixation in boiled (86.18% fixation), oven-dried (67.11% fixation), normal (82.02% fixation) and 24h air-dried (84.87% fixation) slices.
A K Lahiry

Development of composite furniture using bamboo strips, bamboo mat and rubber wood veneer
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40679
Bamboo offers cost-effective component in panel form is well suited to wood substitute can be used as furniture components. In the present study, borak (Bambusa balcooa ) bamboo were used for manufacturing bamboo panel. Mitinga (B. tulda) bamboo were used for making mat and rubber wood veneers were used for manufacturing mat overlaid veneer board. Borax-boric acid (BB) treatments were given to enhance the durability of mat, strips and veneer. The treatments were carried out using borax-boric acid (1:1) aqueous solution of different concentrations at different time schedule by soaking process. The optimum retention of preservative chemicals through mat, strips and veneer were determined. Using 5% BB solution, the average retention was found 21.90 kg/m3 in A (1.22 m X 0.91m) size mat and 24.39 kg/m3 in the B (0.61 m X 0.91m) size mat after 3 days soaking. Using 7% solution, retention of 25.17 kg/m3 A size mat and 28.44 kg/m3 were obtained in B size mat after 3 days treatment. In the case of bamboo strips, highest retention of 26.22 Kg/m3 was found when treated with 7% solution for 3 days. Highest retention 24.53 kg/m3 was obtained in 7% BB treated rubber wood veneers after 3 days soaking. Average retention of 22.07 kg/m3 was found when veneers were treated with 5% BB solution for 3 days. It was observed that, veneers were treated with 7% BB solution attained average retention of 19.20 to 24.53 kg/m3 after 1 to 3 days treatment. It was found that the retention were gradually increased with increasing concentration and time period. After preservative treatment, the materials were used in making composite products for chair.
K Akhter, M Mahabubur Rahaman, M H Chowdhury, M Zahirul Alam

Natural resistance of Bamboo (Bambusa sp.) to marine wood-borers in Goa waters (India)
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10032
The paper deals with the natural durability of Bambusa sp. against the attack of marine wood-borers in Goa waters. Test specimens of this species were completely destroyed within a short period of nine months due to severe attack of borers indicating its very low natural resistance. Wood-borers involved were Martesia striata (Linnaeus), Nausitora hedleyi Schepman and Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrefages). The need for improving the durability of bamboo by suitable preservation techniques for its effective utilisation under marine conditions has been highlighted in the paper.
L N Santhakumaran, S G Sawant

Chapter 11 - Preservation of talla bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-11
Researches revealed that the talla bamboo (Bambusa tulda Roxb.)) in Bangladesh could be full-cell pressure treated with CCA in green and dry conditions. The dry bamboo gives higher loading absorptions than green one when impregnated at same treating conditions. Also higher absorptions are obtained at nodes rather than internodes. Adequate penetration and retention results for ground and water contact uses are only possible by treating bamboos pre-dried to 10-15% MC. The green bamboo is easily treatable for indoor and overhead outdoor uses. The service life of this socio-economically important bamboo can easily be increased at least two times than nominal by CCA treating either green or dry bamboo. Two small holes made before pressure treatment in each internode will give split-free bamboo.
A K Lahiry

Treating Bambusa vulgaris with neem seed oil against basidiomycetic biodegradation
2012 - IRG/WP 12-30608
Realising maximum benefits from bamboo stems/culms in Nigeria are presently constrained by their almost non-acceptance for applications in most structural and construction purposes, except in comparatively low quality and some temporary applications, such as scaffolding, owing to their susceptibility to easy destruction by agents of biodegradation as a result of their poor inherent natural durability. Therefore, there is the need for value-addition to this lignocellulosic material using low cost preservatives, particularly the environmentally benign ones, in order to encourage sustainable utilisation for higher valued products and contribute to poverty alleviation in this part of the world. This report is an outcome of an investigation on the efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil-treatment for bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. ex J.C. Wendl.) against a fungus, also a basidiomycete, known as Pycnoporus sanguineus (L. ex Fr.) Murr. Oven-dried split-bamboo samples conditioned to 11.76% mean moisture content were converted to test specimens for percentage weight loss (PWL) and treated with mechanically extracted neem seed oil (NSO) at two different treatment temperature regimes by completely soaking a set in NSO at ambient room temperature of 25 ± 2oC for 24 hours and soaking the other in NSO at 60oC for 4 hours with untreated samples serving as control. The oil-treated and control samples were initially weighed and subsequently inoculated with cultured P. sanguineus and monitored in an incubating room maintained at ambient temperature of 25 ± 2oC and 65 ± 5% relative humidity for 12 weeks (84 days). After the 84 days incubation period, the test specimens were then reweighed and the PWL determined. Results showed that mean values for PWL was highest for those obtained for control samples (18.21%), comparatively lower for samples soaked in NSO at 25 ± 2oC for 24 hours (5.88%) and lowest for samples soaked in NSO at 60oC for 4 hours (2.21%). Implications of these values were discussed while conclusions and recommendations were based on the outcome of the study.
A A Erakhrumen

Natural resistance of Bambusa vulgaris to termite and powder-post beetle attack in laboratory and graveyard tests
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10925
Deterioration is the major setback to the utilisation of bamboo products. To enhance bamboo utilization, an understanding of the level of resistance to degradation is important. In this study, level at which Bambusa vulgaris will naturally resistant attack by subterranean termites and powder-post beetles were evaluated. B. vulgaris aged 2, 3 and 4 years were subjected to attack by subterranean termites and powder-post beetles for six month in a short span field tests. After the exposure period, the weight loss due to attack were determined in order to evaluate the level of natural resistance to the selected degrading insects. There was significant variation in the termite resistance among the three age classes while no variation occurred along the culm length. In contrast to termite resistivity, resistance to powder-post beetles infestation varied significantly along the culm length from base to the top while the resistance among the three age classes were similar. The bamboo was grouped into resistant classes based on the age and the portion of the culm from which samples were extracted. Bamboo aged 4 exhibited highest resistance to termites and were therefore placed in “Resistant” class while bamboo from age 3, basal and middle portion were placed in “Moderately resistant” class. The resistance of B. vulgaris from all the age classes and culm portion against powder-post attack was poor and were placed in class IV. B. vulgaris resistivity to termite and powder-post attack had significant negative correlation with culm age and portion respectively. Generally, the findings of this work showed B. vulgaris natural resistant to termite depend on culm age while that of powder-post is indifferent to age or the culm portion.
N A Sadiku, S O Bada

Hydrolytic stabilization of chemically modified Bambusa vulgaris Shrad ex JC Wendl
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40830
The main drawback which greatly limit the utilisation of bamboos is their high moisture intake, biodegradation and physical properties changes with environmental variations. To prevent excessive dimensional changes and improve moisture properties of bamboo, Bambusa vulgaris was chemically treated with acetic-anhydride without co-solvent. To evaluate the influence of acetylation on the moisture properties. The weight gain (WPG), Bulking coefficient (BC), Rate of reaction (RR), Volumetric Swelling (VS) and Anti-swelling Efficiency as well as changes in VS and ASE upon long term water soaking and weight loss to leaching (WL) were determined. The results indicated no significant effect of reaction temperature and time on the WPG, BC, VS and ASE of the acetylated bamboo while reaction time had significant influence on RR and WL. None of the bamboo samples had more than 3.67% WPG and 54.69 % ASE. The maximum values of ASE of acetylated bamboo was 54.69% at 2.785 WPG while the lowest 13.08% was recorded at 2.89% WPG. However, at the lowest WPG of 1.61 %, ASE of 35.88% was recorded while the highest WPG of 3.67% gave ASE of 32.84 %. ASE varied from 13.08 % to 54.69% the lowest being recorded at 140oC, 30 mins reaction time while the highest (54.69%) was recorded at 100oC, 90 minutes reaction time. Temperature had no influence on the initial and final volumetric swelling and final anti-swelling efficiency of the modified bamboo samples but reaction time had significant effect on initial ASE. Volumetric swelling of modified samples increased from 8.47 to 18.58% while the unmodified samples swelled from 9.42% to 43.22% within 7 days water soaking period. Acetic anhydride form chemical bonds that are stable to solvent extraction in B. vulgaris. Acetylating at 120°C for 30 and 60 minutes is suitable for B. vulgaris to positively influence its sorption properties.
N A Sadiku, S M Akintayo