IRG Documents Database and Compendium


Search and Download IRG Documents:



Between and , sort by


Displaying your search results

Your search resulted in 711 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.


Preservative treatment of strips of Bambusa balcooa by soaking process using Borax-Boric acid
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30478
Bamboo strips made from Borak bamboo (Bambusa balcooa) were treated with 10% borax-boric acid aqueous solution by soaking process. The moisture contents of the bamboo strips were 12%, 20% and 30%. The strips were soaked for one, two, three, four and five days. The penetration of the solution was investigated by colour test after soaking and drying. Full penetration was observed after three days of soaking in case of strips containing 12% and 20% M.C and the strips containing 30% M.C showed scattered penetration after five days. The retention of the preservative chemicals through the strips was calculated from the absorbed solution after treatment. Retention of 25.5 kg/m3 and 21.5 Kg/m3 was found through the strips of 12% and 20% M.C respectively after three days. The strips containing 30% M.C attained 20.5 Kg/m3 retention after five days. The strips containing 12% and 20% M.C were used for making composite products for the preparation of chair and table and kept for service test.
K Akhter, M W Sheikh, M M Rahman, T A Chowdhury, M H Chowdhury


An effective preservative treatment of borak bamboo (Bambusa balcoona Roxb.)
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40070
Adequate penetration and retention of CCA and CCB has been obtained in predried Borak Bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.), aboundantly grown in Bangladesh, with Full Cell Pressure Process. The treated bamboo can be used as building materials, the sufficient treatability ensured its long term best utilization at ground contact and indoors. Which will keep the environmental & socio economical conditions of Bangladesh more viable and normal.
A K Lahiry, S Begum, G N M Ilias, M A Matin Sheikh, M A B Fakir, M I Hossain


Studies on the preservative treatment of round bamboos by a new technique
1989 - IRG/WP 3536
Nature has offered a versatile and cheap material bamboo, which is generally found to grow principally in forest areas from sea level to about 400 m wherever suitable combination of ecological factors prevail. This potential renewable natural resource has been since times immemorial, exploited by mankind for a variety of purposes specially in developing countries like Asia, Africa and South America. Bamboo is very well known for its remarkably fast growth. The size and yield of bamboo depends upon several factors like species, soil, climate etc. For example, D. gigantius gives culm 35 m long and 20-25 cm in diameter, Chimoni bambus densifolia culm is hardly 90 cm long and 0.85 cm in diameter. While species like D. strictus are almost solid (specially in dry areas) most of the other species are hollow with wall thickness varying (0.62-0.85 cm). Bamboo possesses adequate strength which compares favourably with some conventional species like sal (Shorea robusta) and teak (Tectona grandis). Bamboos and reeds are said to be the oldest and major building materials specially for rural areas throughout tropical and subtropical regions. It is reported that more people live in houses made of bamboos and reeds than in houses of any other material.
V R Sonti, S Sonti, B Chatterjee


Preservative treatment of two bamboo species Borak (Bambusa balcooa Roxb) and Talla (Bambusa tulda Roxb) by Boucherie method
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40262
Bamboo is widely used as a construction material in rural and urban areas of Bangladesh. It is perishable in nature and highly susceptible to the attack of borer, termites and fungi. As a result, bamboo products do not last long. This short life of bamboo is increasing demand thereby increasing pressure on our homestead and natural reserve of bamboo. For this reason, it is needed to make the bamboo more durable by treating it with more simple and easy method with more effective preserving chemicals. Preservation of two bamboo species namely - borak (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) and talla (Bambusa tulda Roxb.) has been carried out by Boucherie method with CCB (Chromated-Copper-Boron) chemicals. It has been observed that, talla can be easily treated than borak by this method. It has also been observed that total treating time varies with species, amount of pressure applied and the length of the bamboo species. The penetration of preservative throughout the bamboo is more or less similar for both the species.
M N Islam, A S M A Huda, A K Saha, S M Mithue


Preservative treatment of round bamboos by a new technique - Some further studies. Part 1
1990 - IRG/WP 3607
In general, the easy susceptibility of bamboos to wood destroying agencies is a major constraint in its rational utilisation. This is more so in tropical countries like India where wood destroying agencies are quite active. In an earlier publication, it was reported that round bamboo specimens of Bambusa balcooa, having three nodes, could be satisfactorily treated by CCA by a new technique developed at the R & D laboratories of Ascu India. It was also stated that further experimental work was in progress with longer specimens. Details of the results obtained so far are reported in this paper.
V R Sonti, B Chatterjee


Penetration analysis of two common bamboo species - borak and jawa of Bangladesh
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40247
Preservative treatment of two bamboo species, namely borak (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) and jawa (Bambusa salarkhanii Alam) was carried out with chromated copper boron (CCB) preservative by dipping method. The variation in preservative penetration between the two different species was determined. It was found that preservative penetrates into borak quicker than into jawa and easier into air-dried bamboo than into green one.
M O Hannan, A K Lahiry, N M Islam


Accelerated fixation of CCA in borak bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) of Bangladesh
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40193
CCA-C fixation study on impregnated (6% CCA solution), then boiled, oven-dried, normal, air-dried and steamed bamboo slices of air-dried borak bamboo (Bambusa balocca Roxb) of Bangladesh, revealed almost complete fixation in steamed (accelerated fixation) and air-dried (3 weeks, slow fixation) bamboo slices compared to moderate to slow fixation in boiled, oven-dried, normal and 24h air-dried slices.
A K Lahiry


Production of preservative-treated wood in some countries
1990 - IRG/WP 3598
This report presents figures of the production of preservative-treated wood and wood treated with anti-stain chemicals in 26 and 20 countries respectively from all over the world.
J Jermer


Treatability and retainability of two important bamboo species - borak and jawa of Bangladesh
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40248
Preservative treatment has been carried out with five different concentrations, i.e. 3%, 4%, 5%, 6% and 7% and durations, i.e. 2 days, 4 days, 6 days, 8 days and 10 days, at different moisture content, i.e. green and air-dry, and different direction of penetration, i.e. radial and both radial and cross-section for jawa and borak. It has been observed that retention of CCB is always higher in jawa bamboo than borak, which is a clear indication to consider jawa bamboo a more permeable and diffusible bamboo species for dipping process. Adequate retention of preservative for indoor use has been obtained in most of the cases. It has been observed that 6% concentration of preservative with 8 to 10 days duration of dipping provides the best results.
M N Islam, A K Lahiry, M O Hannan


Agenda Special Seminar: Screening techniques for potential wood preservative chemicals
1978 - IRG/WP 2115
IRG Secretariat


Chapter 9 - Preservation of borak bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-09
Adequate penetration and retention of CCA and CCB have been obtained in pre-dried Borak bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb. See Fig. below), abundantly grown in Bangladesh, with full-cell pressure process. The treated bamboo can be used as building materials; the sufficient treatability ensured its long-term best utilization at ground contact and indoors. This will keep the environmental and socioeconomical conditions of Bangladesh more viable and normal.
A K Lahiry


Preservative treatment of different thatching materials for low cost housing
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40144
Preservative treatment were made in seven different roofing materials with Copper-Chrome-Boron (CCB) at different concentration by soaking process. These were paddy straw, wheat straw, jute stick, sungrass, ulu grass, sugercane leaf and Nipa fruticans. It was observed that retention of preservative chemicals varies from species to species at the same concentration. From the service test it was observed that by using low concentrated solution at minimum immersion period, durability of the thatching materials can increased which is economically acceptable and enviromnental pollution is also minimized.
K Akhter, M Younusuzzaman, M H Chowdhury


Screening techniques for potential wood preservative chemicals. Proceedings of a special seminar held in association with the 10th Annual Meeting of the IRG, Peebles 1978. Report No 136, 1979
1980 - IRG/WP 2138
This paper continues following issues: I. SCREENING INSECTICIDES 1) R W Berry (BRE/PRL, UK): Screen testing of insecticides for use in remedial wood preservatives. 2) D J Cross (FRI, New Zealand): Rapid screening of contact insecticides for use on forest products. 3) C R Coggins; A Forsyth; A E Glaser (Rentokil, UK): Experience in the use of indicative screening techniques for termiticides. 4) B A Richardson (Penarth Research Centre, UK): Simplified termite tests for wood preservative development work. II. SCREENING FUNGICIDES 5) J A Butcher (FRI, New Zealand): Preliminary screening procedures for assessing fungicidal and insecticidal activity of potential wood preservatives. 6) H Berg-Madsen (Cheminova, Denmark): Screens for novel chemical structures as wood protective fungicides. 7) C R Coggins; I Milne (Rentokil, UK): Industrial experience in the use of filter paper screening techniques for fungicides. 8) A F Bravery (BRE/PRL, UK): A miniaturised wood-block test for the rapid evaluation of wood preservative fungicides. 9) B A Richardson (Penarth Research Centre, UK). Simplified Basidiomycete tests for wood preservative development work. 10) H P Sutter (Acima, Switzerland): A new technique for screening fungicides for wood preservatives. 11) J D Thornton; H Greaves (CSIRO, Australia): Current techniques for screening initial formulations against Basidiomycetes and soft rot. 12) H Greaves (CSIRO, Australia): Preliminary screening of diffusion formulation for the control of soft rot. 13) M A Hulme (Eastern Forest Products Lab, Canada): Deterioration in outdoor chip piles - screening tests for treatments that reduce fibre loss. 14) A J Cserjesi (Western Forest Products Lab, Canada): Principles in the development of laboratory screening tests for the evaluation of sapstain and mould preventives. 15) M A Hulme (Eastern Forest Products Lab, Canada): Screening tests for preventives of fungal sap-stain in Pinus strobus L. 16) M A Hulme (Eastern Forest Products Lab, Canada): Screening tests for brown stain preventives for Pinus strobus L. 17) D van Lenthe; H P Sutter (Acima, Switzerland): Accelerated test method for the control of blue stain. 18) E L Schmidt; D W French (University of Minnesota, USA): Two-day mould testing using a contact agar method. III. SCREENING MARINE BORERS 19) B R Richards; D A Webb (William Clapp Lab; Kopper Co, USA): Biological screening assay of wood samples treated with creosote plus chemical additives exposed to Limnoria tripunctata.
Anonymous


Special seminar on screening techniques for potential wood preservative chemicals
1978 - IRG/WP 2113
This paper continues following issues: I. SCREENING INSECTICIDES 1) R W Berry (BRE/PRL, UK): Screen testing of insecticides for use in remedial wood preservatives. 2) D J Cross (FRI, New Zealand): Rapid screening of contact insecticides for use on forest products. 3) C R Coggins; A Forsyth; A E Glaser (Rentokil, UK): Experience in the use of indicative screening techniques for termiticides. 4) B A Richardson (Penarth Research Centre, UK): Simplified termite tests for wood preservative development work. II. SCREENING FUNGICIDES 5) J A Butcher (FRI, New Zealand): Preliminary screening procedures for assessing fungicidal and insecticidal activity of potential wood preservatives. 6) H Berg-Madsen (Cheminova, Denmark): Screens for novel chemical structures as wood protective fungicides. 7) C R Coggins; I Milne (Rentokil, UK): Industrial experience in the use of filter paper screening techniques for fungicides. 8) A F Bravery (BRE/PRL, UK): A miniaturised wood-block test for the rapid evaluation of wood preservative fungicides. 9) B A Richardson (Penarth Research Centre, UK). Simplified Basidiomycete tests for wood preservative development work. 10) H P Sutter (Acima, Switzerland): A new technique for screening fungicides for wood preservatives. 11) J D Thornton; H Greaves (CSIRO, Australia): Current techniques for screening initial formulations against Basidiomycetes and soft rot. 12) H Greaves (CSIRO, Australia): Preliminary screening of diffusion formulation for the control of soft rot. 13) M A Hulme (Eastern Forest Products Lab, Canada): Deterioration in outdoor chip piles - screening tests for treatments that reduce fibre loss. 14) A J Cserjesi (Western Forest Products Lab, Canada): Principles in the development of laboratory screening tests for the evaluation of sapstain and mould preventives. 15) M A Hulme (Eastern Forest Products Lab, Canada): Screening tests for preventives of fungal sap-stain in Pinus strobus L.
Anonymous


Review of current wood preservation in Turkey
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30315
The aim of this study was to find out the current potential of the Turkish wood preservation industry, and to make some suggestions for its further proceeding, because the forest products potential and the geographical location combined may give to the wood preservation industry in Turkey a great advantage for exportation treated wood materials to the Middle East Countries. In this study, therefore, the importance of wood preservation in the country was discussed and the measurements were described. The regulations, standards and other specifications in current use relevant to the subject in Turkey have also been criticized. Consequently, it can be stated that this research offered the essential data concerning the timber resources in Turkey, the country’s most dangerous wood-destroying organisms, the wood preservatives available, the facilities that exist in the country for wood preservation, and the universities and research institutes that are concerned with protecting wood.
I Usta


Remediation of environmental impacts related to inorganic wood preservative chemicals using in-situ geochemical fixation
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-17
Use of the inorganic wood preservative chemical chromated copper arsenate (CCA) has resulted in several documented cases of soil and ground water contamination at wood treatment plants due to spills or releases of the treatment chemical. The most significant impact from releases of CCA to the environment is related to hexavalent chromium contamination of ground water. This is due to the relative solubility of the hexavalent form of chromium in ground water and its toxicity. The other metals associated with CCA, copper and arsenic, are generally less soluble and therefore not as mobile as hexavalent chromium under typical environmental conditions. Although hexavalent chromium is readily reduced to less soluble and less toxic trivalent chromium, and natural attenuation of hexavalent chromium in the environment has been documented (Palmer and Puls, 1994), often the volume of CCA released exceeds the natural reducing capacity of the soil. Under this scenario, a plume of ground water contamination by hexavalent chromium develops. This paper discusses various approaches to remediation (clean up) of hexavalent chromium associated with CCA releases to the environment, and focuses on an innovative in-situ (in-place) approach that saves significant time and money.
R M Thomasser, J V Rouse


Water analysis in chemicals, wood or chemically treated wood using a new analytical method for selective water detection
2006 - IRG/WP 03-30391
Water or moisture content analysis can be a challenging task in many applications. However, knowing accurately the type of water which can be found in a given sample or product can provide important information about a chemical compound used for wood treatment and especially about the treated wood sample. Moisture content in wood plays an important role in fungal growth and it needs to be extensively monitored. In this study, a new method for the moisture content or trace water analysis will be reviewed. The principle of the method, the main components of the device, the advantages and disadvantages of the method called Selective Water Detection System (SWDE), will be reviewed and presented. Probe molecules and wood samples will be used to explain and examine the type of information one can get using this analytical method. The method can provide information about how water is bonded to a substrate and what type of interactions water has in a sample. This information can be used to evaluate the structure of a chemical used in wood preservation, monitor the water repellency, or determine the type of chemical compound present on the treated wood (e.g. hydration number, weakly or strongly bonded water molecules, etc.). Probe molecules based on boron, commonly used as wood preservative will be used to explain and describe the instrument capabilities and the type of scientific information which can be obtained.
R Craciun, D Taylor


Chapter 12 - Treatment Groups of Bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-12
Study on distribution of CCA in three major bamboo species in Bangladesh, full-cell pressure treated at green and dry conditions revealed two treatment groups and some treating principles. Higher adequate treatment for ground and water contact use is only possible by treating problematic bamboo species pre-kiln dried up to half of its FSP and non-problematic species pre-dried up to FSP (20% MC). The non-problematic species can be treated in green conditions for indoor and overhead outdoor uses. Two smallest holes made before treatment in each internode will give split-free bamboo.
A K Lahiry


Chapter 13 - Slow fixation of CCA-treated bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-13
Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) leachability tests on full-cell pressure impregnated (with 2-3% CCA solution) and slow dried (six months air-drying under cover) bamboo block of three major bamboo species of Bangladesh revealed initial insignificant leaching of CCA within first week and no leaching in next week. Use of low concentration of CCA, release of particle form of CCA due to exposure of bamboo blocks by cutting and presence of watersoluble extractives in bamboo might be the causes for initial leaching of CCA.
A K Lahiry


Chapter 14 - Accelerated fixation of CCA-treated bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-14
Chromated copper arsenate type C (CCA-C) fixation study on impregnated (with adequate w/v 6% CCA solution) then boiled, oven-dried, normal, air-dried and steamed bamboo slices of airdried borakbamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) of Bangladesh, revealed almost complete fixation in steamed (accelerated fixation) and air-dried (3 weeks, slow fixation) bamboo slices compared to moderate to low fixation in boiled (86.18% fixation), oven-dried (67.11% fixation), normal (82.02% fixation) and 24h air-dried (84.87% fixation) slices.
A K Lahiry


Development of composite furniture using bamboo strips, bamboo mat and rubber wood veneer
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40679
Bamboo offers cost-effective component in panel form is well suited to wood substitute can be used as furniture components. In the present study, borak (Bambusa balcooa ) bamboo were used for manufacturing bamboo panel. Mitinga (B. tulda) bamboo were used for making mat and rubber wood veneers were used for manufacturing mat overlaid veneer board. Borax-boric acid (BB) treatments were given to enhance the durability of mat, strips and veneer. The treatments were carried out using borax-boric acid (1:1) aqueous solution of different concentrations at different time schedule by soaking process. The optimum retention of preservative chemicals through mat, strips and veneer were determined. Using 5% BB solution, the average retention was found 21.90 kg/m3 in A (1.22 m X 0.91m) size mat and 24.39 kg/m3 in the B (0.61 m X 0.91m) size mat after 3 days soaking. Using 7% solution, retention of 25.17 kg/m3 A size mat and 28.44 kg/m3 were obtained in B size mat after 3 days treatment. In the case of bamboo strips, highest retention of 26.22 Kg/m3 was found when treated with 7% solution for 3 days. Highest retention 24.53 kg/m3 was obtained in 7% BB treated rubber wood veneers after 3 days soaking. Average retention of 22.07 kg/m3 was found when veneers were treated with 5% BB solution for 3 days. It was observed that, veneers were treated with 7% BB solution attained average retention of 19.20 to 24.53 kg/m3 after 1 to 3 days treatment. It was found that the retention were gradually increased with increasing concentration and time period. After preservative treatment, the materials were used in making composite products for chair.
K Akhter, M Mahabubur Rahaman, M H Chowdhury, M Zahirul Alam


Confocal laser scanning microscopy of a novel decay in preservative treated radiata pine in wet acidic soils
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10215
Light microscopy of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) field test stakes (20x20x500mm3) exposed in wet acidic (pH 3-4) soil for 12 - 24 months showed predominance of an unusual type of decay characte-rised by tunnelling attack of wood cell walls. After two years decay was moderate to severe in wood treated to ground contact CCA specifications and also equivalent retentions of creosote, and a number of new generation preservatives. Relative to other New Zealand temperate test sites and also an Australian tropical site, the New Zealand acidic soil test site was very aggressive. Correlative scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to elucidate the micromorphology of this attack. Tunnels of diameter 0.2-5 µm were present throughout all layers of the cell wall, and their orientation was not related to cellulose microfibril orientation. They also showed no preference for particular cell wall layers, indicating a lignin degrading capability. CLSM images showed that living, connecting fungal hyphae were present in the cell lumina and tunnels. This type of attack was predominant in wood that was highly saturated with water whereas wood that was less moist was predominantly attacked by classical white rot. Ongoing isolation and incubation studies in conjunction with further microscopy should enable identification of the fungal species involved.
R N Wakeling, Ying Xiao, A P Singh


Status of the research and development of a new preservative system (EFPL) for pressure treatment of spruce in Canada
1975 - IRG/WP 348
Our work has been to develop a system which would have the stability of the ACA system and the formulation flexibility of the CCA system enabling properties such as fixation of arsenic, water repellency, appearance and cost to be controlled. Our permeability studies of spruce using a method previously developed indicated that an ammoniacal solution of copper arsenate is an excellent candidate for the treatment of spruce. Studies of the permeability of spruce sapwood microsections to CCA preservative and to an ammoniacal solution of copper arsenate proved that the ammoniacal system penetrates 1.7 to 1.8 times faster than the CCA system, in the radial direction. The permeability in the tangential direction was on the average 3.8 times better. These results were confirmed by pressure treatments of spruce lumber and spruce roundwood with both preservatives.
J Rak, M R Clarke


Screening potential preservatives against stain and mould fungi on pine timber in Zimbabwe
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30063
The search for environmentally and toxicologically safer chemicals for use in the timber preservative industry against stain and mould fungi has been intensified during the past few years. Results of field tests with two chemicals previously evaluated in the laboratory are presented. The conventional sodium pentachlorophenate was the more efficacious chemical against stain and mould fungi, providing up 90% control at a concentration of 2.5%. A potential alternative, Stopstain a borate-based chemical, gave results only slightly better than the untreated control timber, at a concentration of 5%. Unless the environmental cost and toxicological hazards of traditional chemicals are highlighted the newer and safer chemicals will be reluctantly accepted by industry as they are regarded as being prohibitively expensive.
A J Masuka


Manual of a mini treating plant for waterborne preservative treatment of timber and bamboo
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40130
This contributional article includes machinaries and equipments necessary for a small wood treating plant for the pressure treatment of tim bers with waterborne preservatives along with the cost and design. The preservative treatment limitations, treatment schedules and specifications for different products have been described. The cost of a mini treating plant will be 6,00,000 Tk. (13,000 US$), suitable for preserving timber and bamboo products for indoor and outdoor uses and will out last teak wood. The additional durability of timber and bamboo will create economically and environmentally safe conditions.
A K Lahiry


Next Page