Warning: Undefined array key "yearfrom" in /home/jail/home/irgwp/private_html/irgdocs/search.php on line 22

Warning: Undefined array key "yearto" in /home/jail/home/irgwp/private_html/irgdocs/search.php on line 23
IRG-WP Documents Search

IRG Documents Database and Compendium


Search and Download IRG Documents:



Between and , sort by


Displaying your search results

Your search resulted in 24 documents.


The effect of steam conditioning on Southern yellow pine treated with copper naphthenate
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40086
The current study was undertaken to investigate the influence of steam conditioning on Southern yellow pine treated with copper naphthenate (Cu-N). Pre-steamed and /or kiln-dried Southern yellow pine were pressure treated with Cu-N. After treatment, one group of samples were post-steamed. It was found that samples changed color from green to dark-brown after post-steaming. To elucidate the effect ...
Jun Zhang, D P Kamdem, M H Freeman, R D Arsenault


Contribution of wood components on the absorption of copper amine
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30216
The contribution of wood components on the absorption of copper amine was investigated. Holocellulose, lignin and xylan absorbed significant amount of copper. The amount of copper absorbed by cellulose was almost negligible. The removal of extractive also decreased the amount of copper absorption. This study clearly indicates the importance of lignin, hemicellulose in the absorption of copper amin...
D P Kamdem, Jun Zhang


Tests on the effectiveness of concentrated borate wood preservative
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30500
Tests were carried out to examine the toxicity of concentrated borate wood preservative to termites, fungi and mammals. The results showed that the preservative treated timber had high resistance to termite or decay and its acute oral toxicity belonged to low grade. The research shows that concentrated borate solution is an environmentally sound preservative and can be used in non-pressure treatin...
Su Haitao, Zhang Yanjun, Xie Guijun, Chen Lifang, He Xuexiang


Characterization of checks and cracks on the surface of weathered wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40153
The surface roughness of unweathered and untreated pine; unweathered copper chromium arsenate type C (CCA) - treated pine; weathered CCA-treated pine; and weathered CCA-plus-water-repellent (WR) - treated pine was evaluated by a stylus tracing method. Surface roughness parameters Ra, Rz, Rmax, Rk, Rpk, and Rvk were measured. Ra, Rpk, and Rvk were the most appropriate parameters for describing modi...
D P Kamdem, Jun Zhang


Recovery of copper chromium and arsenic from old CCA treated commodities
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50118
Due to the expected increase in spent treated wood over the next several decades, numerous means to reuse and recycle preserved wood have been proposed. Burning this wood for cogeneration or recycling of CCA treated wood into reconstituted composites are possible methods, but they are limited to laboratory scale because of environmental air emission issues and the manufacturing process. In the av...
D P Kamdem, Wanli Ma, Jun Zhang, J Zyskowski


Weathering of copper-amine treated wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40155
Copper ethanolamine (Cu-EA) treated southern pine (SP) were artificially weathered with a QUV Weathering Tester. The weathering regime was composed of a continuous UV-light irradiation for 2 hours followed by a water spray for 18 minutes for a total time of 1200 hours. The changes on the surface of the weathered samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis,...
J Zhang, D P Kamdem


FTIR characterization of copper ethanolamine - wood interaction
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20154
The interaction of copper ethanolamine (Cu-EA) and wood components was studied by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In Cu-EA treated wood, significant reduction was noticed on the band attributed to carbonyl vibration from carboxylic groups at 1735±5 cm-1 and an increase in band intensity was obtained from carbonyl in carboxylate at 1595±5 cm-1. The same observation was made ...
Jun Zhang, D P Kamdem


Interaction of copper-amine complexes with wood: Influence of copper source, amine ligands and amine to copper molar ratio on copper retention and leaching
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30203
The absorption and leachability of copper in copper amine (Cu-EA) treated wood are influenced by the formulation and the composition of copper amine treating solutions. The sources of copper used, Cu(OH)2, CuCO3, CuSO4 and Cu(NO3)2, in the copper amine complex formulation affect the leachability of copper. Data show that copper amine from CuSO4 and Cu(NO3)2 treated wood has less copper loss during...
Jun Zhang, D P Kamdem


Corrosiveness of metal by copper-based preservatives
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40329
The corrosive rates of 4 types of metal as well as epoxy-coated metal by a variety of preservatives derived from different copper source and ingredients were conducted in this paper. The main results shown that: CCA is less corrosive to red brass and Q235A steel than other copper formulations; Copper-based preservatives such as ACQ and copper azole derived from basic cupric carbonate or cupric hyd...
Ying Zhang, Mingliang Jiang


Micro-Distribution of Micronized Copper in Southern Pine
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30479
For copper-based preservatives to be used in ground contact, penetration of copper into the cell wall is believed to be important to protect the wood from soft rot fungi. Preservatives containing soluble copper are known to do this. It is not known whether preservatives containing particulate copper will also migrate into the cell wall in sufficient quantities to control soft rot decay. An AWPA st...
R Stirling, J Drummond, Jun Zhang, R J Ziobro


Biological Performance of micronized copper wood preservative formulations in field and laboratory tests
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30488
Micronized Copper wood preservative formulations with different co-biocides were exposed to brown rot fungi in an 8-week AWPA E10 soil block decay test and two AWPA E7 ground-contact decay tests in Hawaii. The micronized copper formulations performed well against decay at or above the AWPA UC3 and UC4 retentions stipulated by the ICC-ES. Micronized copper preservatives performed comparably to a ...
G M Larkin, J Zhang, D L Richter, R J Ziobro, P E Laks


Ensure Durable Wood-Frame Construction under the Climate and Biological Hazards in Shanghai
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20413
This paper provides technical background for developing durability-related provisions for the Shanghai wood-frame construction code. It summarizes the related climate, decay and termite hazards in this area as well as traditional durability solutions used for wood and wood hybrid constructions in China. The overall durability principles or philosophy used throughout this durability chapter are to ...
Jieying Wang, Chun Ni, Jiahua Zhang


Leaching properties of copper and triazole
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30509
The leaching rate of copper and triazole (such as tebuconazole and propiconazole) in different preservative formulations was determined according to AWPA E11-06. Of all copper triazole and ACQ formulations, copper fixation rate of ammonia based was higher than that of ethanolamine based and the mixture of them. Copper fixation rate at relatively higher retention was slight higher than that at lowe...
Zhiqiang Li, Xiaowen Li, Ying Zhang, Mingliang Jiang


Micronized Copper Preservative Systems: Observations on the Release of Cupric ion (Cu2+) from Treated Wood and Performance against Wood Decay Fungi
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30519
In an attempt to address the mechanism of action of micronized copper preservatives, a 20-week continuous water leaching study was conducted. The leaching results indicated that, once impregnated in wood, micronized copper preservatives continuously release cupric ion, and the levels of cupric ion released from micronized copper treated wood are higher than those released from CCA treated wood, a...
J Zhang, R Ziobro


The natural durability and preservative treatability of 11 bamboo species
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10708
Tests on the natural durability and preservative treatability of 11 common bamboo species were conducted. The results showed that there was a linear relation between bamboo density and its preservative retention by mass, and the preservative retention of bamboo reduced while its density increased. The test also showed that there were significant differences in the natural durability of bamboos, bu...
Chen Lifang, Su Haitao, Zhang Yanjun, Wang Yuxia, He Xuexiang, Ma Hongxia, Xie Guijun


Grading the Performance of 18 Common Bamboo Species
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10723
A grading method for assessing the performance of 18 common bamboo species was introduced in this article. The method was based on 4 grade levels with corresponding scores of 4 reference indexes of bamboos including culm diameter, culm-wall thickness, natural durabiliy and preservative treatability. In comparison with the traditional utlilization of bamboo, the grading results showed that this gra...
Chen Lifang, Su Haitao, Zhang Yanjun, Wang Yuxia, He Xuexiang, Ma Hongxia, Xie Guijun


Mould resistance of bamboo timber treated with tebuconazole-loaded micells
2012 - IRG/WP 12-30586
In this paper both anti-mould test through inhibition zone and mould resistance test on bamboo samples were carried out evaluate mould resistant effect of tebuconazole (TBA) loaded micells. Results showed that TBA loaded micells prepared with a ratio of TBA to PEG113-b-PCL28 50:25 had the best mould resistance, followed by micells prepared with a ratio of TBA to PEG113-b-PCL28 50:50. PEG113-b-PCL2...
Sun Fangli, Chen Anliang, Bao Binfu, Zhou Yueying, Zhang Shaoyong, Zhang Xu


Preparation of Copper Rosinate Emulsion and Its Resistance against Wood Decay Fungi
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30619
A leaching-resistant water-borne copper preservative was prepared by means of the following three steps: (1) Gum rosin was saponified with potassium hydroxide. (2) The soap reacted with copper sulfate to form copper rosinate. (3) The copper rosinate was emulsified with a mixture of Tween 20 and Span 80. Poplar (Populus ussuriensis) wood was impregnated with 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, or 2.0% of the copper ...
Mingxin Zhang, Shujun Li, Qian Wang, Bo Li, Qiong Wu


Influence of selected additives on organic fungicides for control of bamboo mold fungi
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30626
In order to assess the long-term efficacy of supplemented organic fungicides in outdoor applications, additives - including the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and a UV absorber and free radical scavenger benzotriazole (BTA), were selected to mix with the fungicides propiconazole or tebuconazole. Freshly cut samples from four-year old bamboo stems were treated with combinations of the c...
Sun Fangli, B Goodell, Chen Anliang, Bao Binfu, Zhang Shaoyong


Release of Copper from Pressure Treated Wood
2016 - IRG/WP 16-20584
Micronized copper based wood preservatives including micronized copper quat (MCQ) and micronized copper azole (MCA) have been introduced commercially to the North American market since 2006 as alternatives to alkaline copper quat (ACQ) or soluble copper azole (CA) preservatives. Unlike ACQ or CA, MCQ and MCA use dispersed particulate copper particles rather than soluble ionic copper to make treat...
Jun Zhang, J Horton


Protection of bamboo against fungi by Laccase-Catalyzed Iodination
2016 - IRG/WP 16-30694
This paper investigated the effectiveness of bamboo treated by laccase-catalyzed oxidation of potassium iodide. Hence, the indoor and outdoor mold fungi resistances were carried out according to the AWPA (2007) Standard E24–06. According to the results, after 35days good resistances against the fungi were in the order of Trichoderma viride > Penicillium citrinum >Aspergillus niger. It was also o...
K P Nayebare, Shaoyong Zhang, Fangli Sun, B Goodell


Bio-deterioration of Southern Pine Stakes at Geographically Different Testing Sites
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20609
Southern pine (SP) sapwood is commonly used in preparing the standardized stakes for performance testing as referenced in the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA) Book of Standards. For example, the standardized above ground test methods E16/E18 and the standardized ground contact test method E7 all use sapwood of SP as the preferred wood species for preservative performance test. In this...
Jun Zhang, J Horton


Controlled deposition of copper nanoparticles using wood inherent architecture as natural template
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40783
As one of the most abundant renewable biomass resources, wood can be used as templates for synthesizing functional nanoparticles with controlled shapes and sizes. In this study, copper nanoparticles were synthesized with controlled shapes and sizes using poplar wood as the natural inexpensive and renewable templates. The crystal structure and morphologies of the copper nanoparticles were character...
Youming Dong, Kaili Wang, Yutao Yan, Jianzhang Li, M Hughes, Shifeng Zhang


Dimensional stability and decay resistance of montmorillonite- furfuryl alcohol modified wood
2019 - IRG/WP 19-40856
Poplar (Populus cathayana) wood was impregnated successively by organo-montmorillonite (OMMT; in concentration of 2%) and furfuryl alcohol (FA, in concentrations of 15%, 30% and 50%) in a two-step method to prepare OMMT-FA modified wood. The modified wood samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Moreover, wood physical and a...
L Zhang, J Cao